On 11 April 1945, at the conclusion of a ten-month study that took them to every major theater to interview 80 "key military and naval personnel," the Joint Chiefs of Staff Special Committee for the Reorganization of National Defense recommended that the armed forces of United States be organized into a single cabinet department, and that "three coordinate combat branches, Army, Navy, and Air" comprise the operational services. The committee reported that the statutory creation of a United States Air Force would merely recognize a situation that had evolved during World War II with the Army Air Forces, acknowledging that naval/marine aviation and some aspects of army aviation would remain in place. The committee also reported that its recommendation was approved by "Generals of the Army Douglas MacArthur and Dwight D. Eisenhower, Fleet Admirals Chester W. Nimitz and William F. Halsey and numerous other leading military and naval personnel."
"Arnold directly controlled the , equipped with the new long-range B-29 Superfortresses used for bombing Japan's , first from China and then from the . Devastated by , Japan was so weakened by August 1945 that Arnold believed neither the nor the planned would be necessary to win the war. The fact that AAF B-29s on and , nevertheless, demonstrated what air power could do in the future. The provided ammunition for the leaders of the AAF in the postwar debates over armed forces unification and national strategy."
Wear of modified versions of the Air Force uniform is also authorized for the service's civilian auxiliary, the , provided its members adhere to military grooming and modified weight standards. Similar provisions are provided for civilian teenaged high school students participating in the () program.