The classifies civilizations based on their level of technological advancement, specifically measured by the amount of energy a civilization is able to harness. The Kardashev scale makes provisions for civilizations far more technologically advanced than any currently known to exist .
, the German historical philosopher, proposed that the ancient civilizations were affected greatly by an in the period between 800 BCE–200 BCE during which a series of male sages, prophets, religious reformers and philosophers, from China, India, Iran, Israel and Greece, changed the direction of civilizations. proposed that this period of history was one in which culture contact between previously separate civilizations saw the "closure of the ", and led to accelerated social change from China to the Mediterranean, associated with the spread of coinage, larger empires and new religions. This view has recently been championed by Christopher Chase-Dunn and other .
Because of writing, math, and innovations, I believe the Sumerians qualify for having the most significant contributions to history of these civilizations. I can drive because of the wheel. I can be to class on time because of the sexagesimal system. I can enjoy the beautiful domes of European cathedrals. All of this because of the Sumerians.